Cyclic & Collective, by Shawn Coyle

Cyclic & Collective

by Shawn Coyle

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11.0" x 8.5"
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The art and science of flying helicopters.

This unique book, written from the prospective of the pilot provides a detailed, yet easy to understand overview of the theory and practice of helicopters.

This is possibly the most complete book written to date on helicopters and helicopter flying. Covers subjects not covered by other manuals such as turbine engines, performance, flight manuals, automatic flight controls, legal aspects, introductory stability and control and multi-engine helicopters.

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1] Some Fundamentals
Math and Physics Revisited
Newton’s Laws
Vectors, Resultants and Resolving
Balance of Forces
Mass, Force, Energy and Work
Graphs and Such
Putting Together the Basics

2] Introduction to Helicopter
More Discussion of Lift

3] The Rotor Blade
Axes of the Blades
How Lift Gets to the Hub
Drag on the Whole Blade
Blade Flapping

4] More Basics of the Helicopter
Generic Helicopter
The Whole Rotor
Relative Airflow and Disk
Cyclical Change of Pitch
Total Lift from the Disk
Drag at Different Parts on the Disk
Flapback or Blowback
Rotor Heads and Components
Control of the Rotor
Tail Rotors

5] Air, Wind, and Weather
International Standard Atmosphere
Wrong Information

6] Basic Helicopter Performance
Airframe Performance Defined
Hover performance
Power Required vs. Density Altitude
Forward Flight Performance
Low Airspeed Power Required
Climb and Descent Performance
V Airspeeds
Load Factors

7] Balance and Weight
Center of Gravity
Weight and CG Diagram
Balance of Forces in the Hover

8] The Aerodynamics of Autorotation
Autorotation Defined
Lift Vectors Again
Effect of Forward Flight

9] Instruments and Warning Systems
Airframe Instruments
Sideslip and Side Force
Engine Transmission and Rotor Instruments

10] The Piston Engine
Principles of Operation
Basics of Carburation
Piston Engine Helicopter Instruments
Free–Wheel Units
Piston–Engine Helicopter Power Control
Measuring Piston Engine Helicopter Power
Carburetor Icing
Mixture Control
Throttle Handling
Throttle Co–relators
Fuel Injection
Piston Engine Governors
Other Components of the Engine
Operation of the Piston Engine

11] Dear Student
Instructors: what they know and don't
All those gages and clocks
Where to look
Post Flight

12] Before You Strap In…
Prior to Lift-off
Holding the Controls
Effects of Controls
Hand Signals

13] Helicopter Flying - The Basics
Effects of Controls in Forward Flight
Attitude Flying
Changing Airspeed in Level Flight
Climbs and Descents
Developing a ‘Seat of the Pants’ Sense

14] The Divine Art of Hovering
Concepts of Hovering
Nr Control
Hovering With a Purpose
Specific Exercises for Learning Hovering
Moving Around
Hovering with Different References
Turns in the Hover
In a low speed Environment
Taxing to the Side or Rear
Ground Taxing Skid Helicopters

15] Twixt Heaven and Earth,
Transitions to Forward Flight
Running Takeoff
“Maximum Performance Climbout”
Downwind Transition
Turns After Transition
Approach and Touchdowns
Transition Back to the Hover
Learning to Judge…
‘Normal’ Approach
Fast Approaches
Steep Approach
The No-Hover Touch Down
Approaches with Turns
Running Landing
Traffic Patterns or Circuits
Confined Areas

16] Lift-off and Touchdown
Touching Down From The Hover
Sloping Surfaces

17] Introducing Emergencies
Emergencies - General
Critical Emergencies
What Emergencies Can Happen

18] Engine Failures for Beginners
Collective Check - Why It Works
Power Recovery Autorotations
Real Autorotations
Autorotative Performance
The Height-Velocity Curve

19] Peculiarities of the Helicopter
Loss of Translational Lift
Vortex Ring State
Retreating Blade Stall
Blade Sailing

20] Flight Manuals, Rules and Regulations
The Civilian Flight Manual
Philosophical Words about the Civilian FM
Reasons for Rules
Side Wind, Sideward Flight
The Military Flight Manual
Visual Flight Rules (VFR)

21] Miscellaneous
Where the Pilot Sits
Radios and Air Traffic Control
Safety Statistics
Going Solo
Single Seat and Ultralight Helicopters

22] For the Professional Helicopter Pilot
Make a Decision
Concepts of Controls
Looking Outside
Questions and Tests Specific Exercises
Flying by the Seat of your Pants

23] Advanced Helicopter Aerodynamics
Blade and Segment Aerodynamics
Pitching Moments
Disk Aerodynamics
Tail Rotors

24] Flight Controls and Rotor Heads
Rotor Heads
Disk Axes
New Rotor Heads
The Teetering Rotor Head
Hiller Control System
Robinson R-22 and R-44 Hub
MD Series Rotor Head
Height of Hub Above the CG

25] Advanced Performance
Factors Affecting Performance
Induced Velocity
Typical Civil FM Performance chart
Peculiarities of Low Airspeed IGE
Climb and Descent Performance
Whizz Wheels
Rules of Thumb

26] Other Components
Fuel Systems
Transmissions and Drive Shafts
Electrical Systems
Hydraulic Systems
De-Ice / Anti-Ice systems
Landing Gear
Fire Detection and Suppression
Heating and Ventilation
Windshield Wipers

27] Advanced Helicopter Flying
So How Do We Fly a Helicopter?
Flying a Helicopter – Hovering
Why are Helicopters Difficult to Fly?
How to Hold the Controls
Helicopter Pilots are Easy
Control Forces

28] More Instruments
Pitot Systems
Altimeter Corrections in Cold Weather
Reasons for Low Airspeed Systems
Miscellaneous Instruments
The Digital Era

29] The Turbine Engine
Typical Free Turbine Engine
Ratings and Limitations of Engines
Density Altitude vs. Pressure Altitude and OAT
Governing systems
Electronic Fuel Controls
Turbine Engine Power Monitoring
Automatic Relight vs. Manual Air Starts
Engine–Related Items
Turbine Engine Cool-Down
Fixed Shaft Turbine Engines

30] Advanced Engine Failures
Energy and Autorotations
Cone of Possible Areas
Intervention Delay Time
Height Velocity (HV) Curves

31] Advanced Emergencies
Tail Rotor Problems
When to Inflate Pop-out Floats
Emergencies Caused by Vibrations and Noise

32] Multi-Engine Helicopters
OEI Performance
Engine Failures in Multi-Engine Helicopters
Category A or Category B?
Heliport Takeoff Techniques

33] Stability and Control of the Helicopter
Weight and Balance
Inherent Sideslip
Cross Coupling of CG Effects
Keel Area Ratio
Fixed Floats Effect
Equations of Motion
Control Margin / Limitations
Solving Aerodynamic Problems

34] Further Peculiarities

Ground Resonance
Tail Rotor Control
Rapid Rolling
Underslung Loads
High Altitude Flying
Flying in Your Own Dust
Mast Bumping

35] Other Helicopter Types
Coanda Effects
Tip Jets
Kaman Servo–Flap Controls
Replacing the Tail Rotor

36] Night and Instrument Flying
Instrument Flying
Autorotations at Night, in Clouds, etc.
Instrument Flying Rules (IFR)

37] Automatic Flight Control
Types of AFCS
Automatic Trim Systems
AFCS ‘Upper’ Modes
Hover and Low Speed
Failures of the AFCS

38] Miscellaneous Musings
Type Ratings
Minimum Equipment Lists (MEL)
Using GPS Intelligently
Torque Limiters
Health, etc.
Personal Equipment
The Helicopter is Not a Winch or Bulldozer

Author Biography:
Since I began flying at age 17, and had my private pilot license before I had a driver’s license. I guess flying was a first priority! I joined the Canadian Air Force and graduated from Royal Military College with a Bachelor of Civil Engineering then went to pilot training. I flew the Canadian version of the UH-1N in a tactical support role with the Army. Empire Test Pilot School took me up 1979, and I stayed in England on an exchange tour with the Royal Air Force test flying 6 different types at once, from the Chinook to the Gazelle. After returning to Canada for two years at Cold Lake, I joined Bell Helicopter for the model 400 project in Fort Worth and did a lot of instructing on the Bell 206. That was followed by nearly 4 years instructing test pilots at the US Naval Test Pilot School at Patuxent River. England lured me back in 1989 to the International Test Pilot School for more flight test teaching. After a couple of years consulting and free-lance flying, I worked at Transport Canada as a certification test pilot on the Bell 407, 430 and 427. In 2001 I moved to California to teach at National Test Pilot School, and then went to Mercy Air to fly an EMS Bell 412. In between all of these, I wrote for Rotor and Wing, Helicopter World, and now Vertical magazine. My book, ‘Cyclic and Collective’ was updated in 2005.


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